Monday, June 1, 2009

Elodie Briefer



NEW BLOG: go to http://ebriefer.wix.com/elodie-briefer





Animal Behaviour, Health and Welfare Unit
Institute of Agricultural Sciences
ETH Zürich
Universitätstrasse 2
8092 Zürich
Switzerland
elodie.briefer(‘at’sign)usys.ethz.ch
Tel: 0041 44 632 84 55






Research interests

Justify Full My primary research interests are cognition and vocal communication in birds and mammals. The main aims of my research are understanding how animals use vocal signals to encode information about their identity (e.g. species, group, individual identity), their quality (e.g. body size, dominance status, age,...) and their affective states (emotions, mood), as well as the impact of such information on conspecifics.


Current position and research

I am currently a postdoctoral research assistant at ETH Zürich working on vocal correlates of emotions in horses. During my previous postdoctorates and my PhD, I was working on the following projects:


1) Second postdoc (Queen Mary University of London, funded by a Swiss National Science Foundation fellowship for advanced researchers)
Using vocalizations and cognitive bias to assess affective states and welfare in domestic goats (Capra hircus)
The aim of this project was to develop convenient and non-invasive techniques to measure both negative and positive affective states (emotions and moods) in goats. Recently, public concern about positive animal welfare has increased. Positive welfare is not only the absence of negative emotions, but also the presence of positive emotions, such as pleasure and happiness. However, scientific techniques to assess positive emotions are lacking. Emotions are short-living affective reactions to an event, and can be defined using two dimensions: arousal (activating qualities) and valence (positive or negative); and four components: cognitive, behavioural, physiological and subjective components (which cannot yet be proven to occur in animals). I investigated the physiological and behavioural signs of negative and positive emotions. Then, long-term affective states ('mood') were tested using a cognitive bias setup (the influence of mood on cognitive processes; Briefer and McElligott 2013). This research was carried out at Buttercups, Sanctuary for goats (Boughton Monchelsea, Kent), and was funded by a research grant from the Swiss Federal veterinary office.


2) 
First postdoc (Queen Mary University of London, funded by a Swiss National Science Foundation fellowship for prospective researchers)
Goats (Capra hircus): mother-offspring vocal recognition 
Mother-young relationships in ungulates are influenced by two main strategies for predator avoidance during early life. Follower young are mobile soon after birth and therefore rely on fleeing and maternal and group defence to avoid predation, whereas hider young spend most of their time hidden in vegetation to avoid detection by predators. These two widely divergent strategies have been hypothesized to affect the vocal recognition process between mothers and offspring. However, studies about mother-offspring recognition in ungulate are sparse and further investigations need to be extended and tested with ungulates that vary in their ecology, vocal repertoires and social complexity. I tested mother-offspring recognition in goats, a hider species particularly interesting since characterized by the development of exclusive bonding to the neonate. I examined both the coding of individual identity in mother and kid goat calls, i.e. which parameters of the calls give information about the individual identity of mothers and kids, and the recognition process, i.e. if mother and kid goat recognise each other acoustically. I also investigated age, sex and body size growth effects, as well as genetic and social influences on kid call development. I found that goat kid calls contain information about sex, age and body size (Briefer and McElligott 2011a). They also contain information about kinship and, surprisingly, group membership, which implies that goat kid calls are shaped by their social environment (Briefer and McElligott 2012). Mother and kid vocalisations are individualised. As a result, a mutual vocal recognition exists from at least one week postpartum (Briefer and McElligott 2011b), and the memory of kid calls by mothers persists even after weaning (Briefer et al. 2012). This research is carried out at the White Post Farm (Farnsfield, Nottinghamshire) and funded by a University of London Central Research Funds.

3) First postdoc (Queen Mary University of London, funded by a Swiss National Science Foundation fellowship for prospective researchers)
Fallow deer (Dama dama): sexually-selected vocal communication
Sexually selected vocalisations of males often provide accurate information about individual identity and quality. Age related morphological changes affecting sound production may also cause modifications of vocalisations, as for humans. Vocalisations can thus potentially be used by other males or by females to assess male body size, dominance status or even age. Fallow buck groans are produced for a short period each year during the breeding season. A question which has not yet been investigated is whether the vocal identity of individuals changes between years, because of changes in dominance status, age and the long period in between breeding seasons during which males are silent. To answer this question, I investigated the effect of changes in age and dominance status on the groans of fallow bucks recorded during consecutive years. My results show that the structure of groans conveys reliable indication about the age and dominance status, and that males produce individually distinctive calls each year. However, as some acoustic components of groans signal both identity and quality, the changes in male quality with age cause a modification of the identity of groans. Groans are thus faithful signals of male quality that change with age accordingly (Briefer et al. 2010a).

4) PhD (University Paris South, funded by a French Minister of Research and Technologies fellowship)

I carried out my PhD in the bioacoustics team of Paris South University, CNRS, with Dr Fanny Rybak and Dr Thierry Aubin. My research was on the coding of group and individual identities in a songbird with a complex song, the skylark Alauda arvensis.
Bird songs are among the most complex sounds produced by animals. Song complexity is thought to have evolved largely through intersexual selection. However, this complexity may hinder vocal recognition, which plays an important role in a variety of social contexts, including neighbour recognition during territory defence. I investigated the influence of song sharing and song complexity on neighbour recognition in a territorial songbird with a highly complex song, the skylark. I first carried out a detailed analysis of songs to describe song syntax (the organisation of sound units in sequences within songs) and to measure song complexity (Briefer et al. 2010b). I showed that skylark songs are among the most complex acoustic signals compared to other songbird species, and that geographical variation exists at the syntax level: in a given patch, males (neighbours) share several sequences of syllables in their songs, whereas males settled in different patches (strangers) have no sequences in common (Briefer et al. 2008a). These variations were linked to the habitat fragmentation, with enhanced song sharing in fragmented habitats compared to continuous ones (Briefer et al. 2010b). I then tested neighbour recognition using playbacks of natural and artificially modified songs. Playback experiments showed that shared sequences found in the songs of neighbouring birds constitute a group signature used by birds to discriminate neighbours from strangers, and that the syntax of these particular sequences is an important feature for the group identity coding. The ordering of syllables within songs is thus behaviourally salient and carries a particular meaning for the birds. This group signature may also be used for the recognition of distant and unfamiliar neighbours (Briefer et al. 2010c). Neighbour-stranger discrimination results in a reduced aggression by territorial birds towards neighbours compared to strangers (called ‘dear-enemy effect’) at the middle of the breeding season. Dear-enemy relationships between neighbours depend on social and ecological circumstances. They exist only when territory boundaries are stable and respected (Briefer et al. 2008b). I also showed that males spatially categorized the songs of their adjacent neighbours and that the individual signature is potentially coded in individual sequences of syllables (Briefer et al. 2009). Song components are thus used for both the neighbour-stranger and neighbour-neighbour discrimination. They serve as a basis for reduced aggression towards neighbours and thus ensure group cohesion.


CV

2013- Postdoctoral research assistant, Institute of Agricultural Sciences
ETH Zürich, Switzerland

2009-2012 Postdoctoral Researcher, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London (UK)
Funded by a Swiss National Science Foundation fellowship for prospective researchers (2009-2010) and for advanced researchers (2010-2012)

2005-2008 PhD in Behavioural Biology, University of Paris North (France)

Thesis: Coding of group and individual identities in a songbird with a complex song, the skylark Alauda arvensis.
Lab: NAMC, CNRS-UMR8620, University of Paris South
Supervisors: Dr T. Aubin and Dr F. Rybak
Funded by a French Minister of Research and Technologies fellowship

2004-2005 Masters in Behavioural Biology, University of Paris South (France)

Thesis: Microgeographic variations in the territorial song of the skylark (Alauda arvensis)
Lab: NAMC, CNRS-UMR8620, University of Paris South
Supervisors: Dr T. Aubin and Dr F. Rybak


Publications

Google Scholar
*Corresponding author(s)




 



19. Stachowicz JB, Vannoni E, Pitcher BJ, Briefer EF, Geffen E, McElligott AG*. In press. Acoustic divergence in the rut vocalisations of Persian and European fallow deer. Journal of Zoology.

20. Briefer EF*, Rybak F, Aubin T. 2013. Does true syntax or simple auditory object support the role of skylark song dialect? Animal Behaviour 86, 1131-1137.

17. Baciadonna L, McElligott* AG, Briefer EF*. 2013. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task. PeerJ 1:e172

16. Briefer EF*, McElligott AG* 2013. Rescued goats at a sanctuary display positive mood after former neglect. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 146, 45-55.

15. Briefer, EF*, Farrell, ME, Hayden, T, McElligott, AG* 2013. Fallow deer polyandry is related to fertilization. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 4, 657-665.

14. Briefer Freymond, S*, Briefer, EF, Von Niederhäusern, R, Bachmann, I 2013. Pattern of social interactions after group integration: A possibility to keep stallions in group. PLoS ONE 8, e54688.

13. Briefer EF*, Padilla de la Torre M, McElligott AG* 2012. Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279, 3749-3755.

12. Briefer EF* 2012. Vocal expression of emotions in mammals: mechanisms of production and evidence. Journal of Zoology 188, 1-20.


11. Briefer EF*
, McElligott AG* 2012. Social effects on vocal ontogeny in an ungulate, the goat, Capra hircus. Animal Behaviour 83, 991-1000.


10. Briefer E*, McElligott AG* 2011a. Indicators of age, body size and sex in goat kid calls revealed using the source-filter theory. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133, 175-185.



9. Briefer E*, McElligott AG 2011b. Mutual mother-offspring vocal recognition in an ungulate hider species (Capra hircus). Animal Cognition 14, 585-598.


8. Briefer E *, Rybak F, Aubin T 2011. Microdialect and group signature in the song of the skylark Alauda arvensis. Bioacoustics, 20, 219-234.


7
. Farrell ME, Briefer E*, McElligott AG* 2011. Assortative mating in fallow deer reduces the strength of sexual selection. PLoS ONE 6, e18533.


6. Briefer E
, Vannoni E, McElligott AG* 2010a. Quality prevails over identity in the sexually selected vocalisations of an ageing mammal. BMC Biology 8, 35. 


5. Briefer E*, Osiejuk TS, Rybak F, Aubin T 2010b. Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by the habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 262, 151-164.


4. Briefer E *, Rybak F, Aubin T 2010c. Are unfamiliar neighbours considered to be dear-enemies? PLoS ONE 5, e12428.

 
3. Briefer E*, Aubin T, Rybak F 2009. Response to displaced neighbours in a territorial songbird with a large repertoire. Naturwissenschaften, 96, 1067-1077.

2. Briefer E*, Aubin T, Lehongre K, Rybak F 2008a. How to identify dear-enemies: the group signature in the complex song of the skylark Alauda arvensis. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 317-326.


1. Briefer E*, Rybak F, Aubin T 2008b. When to be a dear-enemy: flexible acoustic relationships of neighbouring skylarks Alauda arvensis. Animal Behaviour 76, 1319-1325. 



Ph.D. Thesis:

Briefer E 2008. Codage de l'identité de groupe et de l'identité individuelle chez une espèce d'oiseau à chant complexe: l'alouette des champs (Alauda arvensis). Ph.D. Thesis, Université Paris Nord.

Book Review:

Briefer E, McElligott AG 2010. The question of animal culture or of human uniqueness? Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 8, 275-280.




Press coverage

Vocal correlates of emotion

Journal of Zoology Podcast 

Goats

"Countryfile", BBC1 (11/03/2012)

Goat cognitive bias

"Happy goats: How animal rehab works", BBC News, Science and Environment

Goat kid accents

"100 things we didn't know last year" ( 4), BBC News
"Baby goat accent", Science Update  
"Goat kids can develop 'accents'", BBC Nature
"Young goats can develop distinct accents", New Scientist
"Upbleat Finding: Kids Start to Sound Alike over Time", Scientific American
"Baaad Call: Young Goats Pick Up Accents", Live Science

"Young goats learn accents from one another"
"You've got to be kidding me! Remarkable research shows goats have accents which they pick up from their peers", Daily Mail
"You say 'nay,' I say 'neigh': Goats Have Accents", NPR
"Goats can form accents, study finds", NY Daily News
"Goats 'can develop their own accents'" The Telegraph

"Do Goats Have Accents?", Time
"L'accent des chèvres", Pour la Science, France
"Anche le capre hanno un loro accento", Corriere della Sera, Italie
"Cabras podem desenvolver sotaques, revela pesquisa", National Geographic, Brasil 

"Vous avez dit "Beeeee"?", Horizons 93, SNF, Switzerland
"As kids get older they begin to sound the same"
, The Western Producer

Skylarks

Journal reviewer: Acta Ornithologica, American Journal of Primatology, Animal Behaviour, Animal Cognition, The American Naturalist, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, The Auk, Behaviour, Behavioral Ecology, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, BMC Biology, Current Zoology, Entropy, Ethology, Ecology Ecology & Evolution, Frontieres in Zoology, Journal of Experimental Biology, Journal of Ornithology, Journal of Theoretical Biology, PLoS ONE, Naturwissenschaften.

Grant reviewer: BBSRC, Marsden Fund

Editorial board member: Journal of Zoology


Conferences and seminars 

Briefer EF 2013. Vocal indicators of positive and negative emotions in mammals. XXXI Encontro Anual de Ethologia, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invited speaker

Briefer EF 2013. Vocal indicators of positive and negative emotions in mammals. Ateliers de l'Institut Francilien d'Ethologie, Université Paris Ouest-Nanterre, La Défense, Paris, France. Invited speaker

Briefer EF, Tettamanti F, McElligott AG 2013. Vocal indicators of positive and negative emotions in goats. 24th International BioAcoustics Council meeting, Pirenopolis, Brazil. Symposium speaker


Pitcher B, Briefer EF, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2013. Communicating quality: advertisement and male assessment in an extremely vocal deer. Ethological Conference and Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle University, UK.
Briefer EF, Oxley J 2013. A brief review of comparative human-animal personality and areas for future study. Ethological Conference and Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle University, UK.

Briefer EF, Tettamanti F, McElligott AG 2013. Using vocalisations to measure positive and negative emotions in goats. 33rd International Ethological Conference and Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour, Newcastle University, UK. Symposium organiser: Measuring and understanding positive emotions and welfare in farm livestock

Baciadonna L, McElligott AG, Briefer EF 2013. Goats favour personal over social information in an experimental foraging task. 3rd Transfer-of-Knowledge Conference of Comparative Cognition, Vetmeduni Vienna, Austria.

Zollinger A, Briefer Freymond S, Briefer EF, Gindrat-von Allmen Y, Wyss C, Bachmann I 2013. Who’s in a better mood? Comparison of behavioural indicators in horses trained with negative or positive reinforcement. 9th International Equitation Science Conference, University of Delaware, Newark, USA.

Briefer Freymond S, Briefer EF, Zollinger A, Gindrat-von Allmen Y, Wyss C, Bachmann I 2013. Assessment of horse optimism following negative or positive reinforcement.9th International Equitation Science Conference, University of Delaware, Newark, USA.

Briefer EF 2013. Vocal communication in groups of skylarks: importance of song syntax. Animal syntax workshop, University of Zürich, Switzerland. Invited speaker

Briefer EF, McElligott AG 2013. Social and genetic influences on goat kid calls during development. Listening in the Wild,  Queen Mary University of London, UK. 

Favaro L, Briefer EF, McElligott AG 2013. Artificial Neural Network approach to assess vocal identity, kinship and ageing in goats (Capra hircus). Listening in the Wild, Queen Mary University of London, UK.

Briefer Freymond S, Briefer EF, Gindrat-von Allmen Y, Wyss C, Zollinger A, Bachmann I 2013. Evaluation de l’état émotionnel de chevaux entraînés avec du renforcement négatif ou positif. 6ème réunion annuelle du Réseau de recherche équine en Suisse, Avenches, Switzerland.

Briefer EF 2013. Goat cognition: vocal recognition, information use and long-term memory. Behaviour, Ecology, Environment and Evolution Seminar, University of Zürich, Switzerland. Invited speaker

Briefer EF 2012. Goat cognition: vocal recognition, information use and long-term memory. Behaviour Discussion Group, University of St Andrews, UK. Invited speaker

Briefer EF 2012. Deciphering goat calls: cues to physical characteristics and emotional states. University of Roehampton, UK. Invited speaker


Briefer EF, Farrell ME, McElligott AG 2012. Assortative mating and polyandry in a large, polygynous deer species. 14th  International Behavioral Ecology Congress, Lund, Sweden.


Pitcher BJ, Briefer EF, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2012. Signals of quality and motivation in fallow deer (Dama dama). 14th  International Behavioral Ecology Congress, Lund, Sweden.


Briefer Freymond S, Von Niederhäusern R, Bachmann-Rieder I,  Briefer EF 2012. Effect of housing systems on horse behaviour: a possibility to keep stallions in group. 46th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Vienna, Austria.


Briefer EF, McElligott AG 2012. Goat calls differ according to emotional arousal and valence. 46th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Vienna, Austria.


Briefer EF 2012. Deciphering goat vocalizations: cues to physical characteristics and emotional states. Neurobiology, behaviour and cognition seminars, Queen Mary University of London. Invited speaker


Briefer EF, McElligott AG 2012. Rapid onset and long-term maintenance of vocal recognition in goats. Société Française pour l'Étude du Comportement Animal, Maison de l’Université, Saint-Étienne, France. 
Invited speaker

Briefer EF 2012. Using vocalizations to measure emotions and assess animal welfare. Vetsuisse-Fakultät, Universität Bern, Bern. Invited speaker


Briefer S, Briefer EF, Bachmann I 2011. Détention d‘étalons en groupe. Behaviour Medicine in Horses, Nationales Pferdezentrum, Bern.

Farrell ME, Briefer EF, McElligott AG 2011. Assortative mating and polyandry in a large, polygynous deer species. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Winter Meeting, London.

Briefer EF
, McElligott AG 2011. Fallow buck groans: A robust example of honest signals. 23rd International BioAcoustics Council meeting, La Rochelle, France. 
Invited speaker

Briefer EF
, McElligott AG 2011. Social and genetic influences on goat kid calls during development. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Summer Conference, St Andrews.


Padilla-De La Torre M, Ochocki B, Briefer E, Reader T, McElligott AG 2011. Vocal communication in cattle (Bos taurus): mother-offspring recognition. 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Indianapolis, USA.


Padilla-De La Torre M, Ochocki B, Briefer E, Reader T, McElligott AG 2011. Vocal communication in cattle (Bos taurus): mother-offspring recognition. Animal Behavior Society and International Ethological Conference, Bloomington, USA.


Briefer E
2011. Using vocalisations to measure emotions and assess animal welfare. Federal Veterinary Office, Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Taenikon, Switzerland. 
Invited speaker

Padilla-De La Torre M, Ochocki B, Briefer E, Reader T, McElligott AG 2011. Vocal communication in cattle (Bos taurus): mother-offspring recognition. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Easter Conference, Cambridge.


Briefer E
, McElligott, AG 2010. Social influence on goat kid calls during development. Machine Listening Workshop 2010, Queen Mary University of London.

Aubin T, Briefer E, Rybak F 2010. Territorial songs in birds: a multi-level coding process. 20th International Congress on Acoustics, Sydney, Australia.

Briefer E
, McElligott AG 2010. The ontogeny of mother-young acoustic recognition in goats. 44th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Uppsala, Sweden.
 

McElligott AG, Vannoni E, Briefer E 2010. Quality prevails over identity in the sexually selected vocalizations of an ageing mammal. 44th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology, Uppsala, Sweden.

Briefer E
, McElligott AG 2010. Mother-young acoustic recognition in goats: a unidirectional or mutual process? University Federation for Animal Welfare Conference, York.

Briefer S, Von Niederhäusern R, Linard M, Briefer E 2010. Mise en troupeau de 5 étalons reproducteurs domestiqués. 5ème réunion annuelle du Réseau de recherche équine en Suisse, Avenches, CH.
 

Briefer E, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2010. Quality prevails over identity in sexually-selected fallow buck groans. SET for BRITAIN, House of Commons, London.
 

Briefer E, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2010. Fallow buck groans and ageing: do signals of identity compete with those of quality? Integrating genetic and cultural evolutionary approaches to language evolution, Queen Mary University of London.

Briefer E
, Rybak F, Aubin T 2010. Group signature in a songbird with a complex song. Integrating genetic and cultural evolutionary approaches to language evolution, Queen Mary University of London.

Briefer E
 2009. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: song complexity and song sharing. University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Invited speaker

Briefer E 
2009. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: importance of song syntax. Research Seminars, School of Psychology, University of East London. Invited speaker

Briefer E,
Rybak F, Aubin T 2009. Group signature in a songbird with a complex song. 22nd International BioAcoustics Council meeting, Lisbon, Portugal.
 

Briefer E, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2009. How do ageing and dominance changes affect the acoustic structure of fallow buck groans? 22nd International BioAcoustics Council meeting, Lisbon, Portugal.

Briefer E
, Vannoni E, McElligott AG 2009. Fallow buck groans and ageing: do signals of identity compete with those of quality? Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Summer Conference, Oxford.

Farrell ME, Briefer E, McElligott AG 2009. Young females buck the trend and mate with subordinate males. Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Summer Conference, Oxford.
 

Briefer E 2009. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: importance of song syntax. Neurobiology and Behaviour Seminars, Queen Mary University of London. Invited speaker

Briefer E 
2009. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: importance of song syntax. Psychology Seminars, University of Sussex, Brighton. Invited speaker
 

Briefer E 2009. How and when to be dear-enemies: the function of song sharing in the skylark. Evolutionary Discussion Group, University of Nottingham, Nottingham. Invited speaker

Briefer E 2009. The influence of habitat fragmentation on song sharing and song complexity in the skylark. Science for Conservation Seminars, Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London. Invited speaker


Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2008. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: syntax always matters? 20th International Congress of Zoology, Paris, France. Organisation Committee, awarded prize for best poster


Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2008. Vocal communication in groups of neighbouring skylarks: syntax always matters? Acoustic Communication by Animals, Oregon State University, USA. Student travel grant from Oregon State University


Rybak F, Briefer E, Aubin T 2008. Vocal relationships in the neighbourhood: neighbour-stranger discrimination and spatial categorisation of neighbours in a song bird species. Vocal Communication in Birds and Mammals, St Andrew, Scotland.
 

Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2007. The group signature in the complex song of a song bird, the skylark Alauda arvensis. 21st International BioAcoustics Council, Pavia, Italy.

Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2007. How and when to be dear-enemies? The case of the skylark Alauda arvensis. 30th International Ethological Conference, Halifax, Canada.


Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2007. Song micro-dialects as a basis for the dear-enemy effect in a territorial songbird, the skylark. 3rd Meeting in Ecology and Behaviour, Montpellier, France.


Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2007. Codage et décodage de l’identité de groupe et de l’identité individuelle dans le chant complexe d’un oiseau chanteur, l’alouette des champs : Alauda arvensis. 5èmes Journées du GDR d’Ethologie, University of Paris North, France.


Aubin T, Briefer E, Rybak F 2007. Group signature and dear enemy effect in a territorial songbird, the skylark (Alauda arvensis). Max Planck Institute Seminars, Ethology Centre of Seewiesen, Munich, Germany.
 

Rybak F, Briefer E, Aubin T 2006. Les micro-dialectes et le « dear-enemy effect » dans le chant territorial de l’alouette Alauda arvensis. 4èmes Journées du GDR Ethologie, Seix, France.
 

Briefer E 2006. Microgeographic variations in the skylark (Alauda arvensis) territorial song. Department of Behavioural Ecology, Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan, Poland. Invited speaker

Briefer E, Rybak F, Aubin T 2006. Song micro-dialects as a basis for the dear-enemy effect in a territorial songbird, the skylark. 3rd European Conference on Behavioural Biology, Belfast, Ireland.




Links

Animal Behaviour, Health and Welfare Unit, ETHZ